Long ago, white pine forests covered much of the Northwoods of Wisconsin, and the expanses of what could yield valuable lumber stretched well into Michigan, Minnesota and Canada. The first white men to travel through the area, early European explorers and fur traders recounted tales of the extensive and impressive pinery. By the early 1800s, Europeans started to settle what would become Wisconsin and the allure of the pinery called out, waiting to be harvested. White pine was especially exciting because softwoods could be floated down rivers to bring them to market. Whereas the denser hardwoods like walnut or hemlock that were also abundant, were nearly impossible to move out of the Northwoods until the railroads were built decades later. Understandably, the Native American tribes who lived in the region were not enthusiastic about lumbermen arriving to cut down their forests. After the tragic human cost of the Black Hawk War in the early 1830s, the U.S. government set out to negotiate with the Sioux, Ojibwe and Menominee tribes in Wisconsin to secure the right to harvest the pineries. In this area, the Chippewa (Ojibwe) and Menominee tribes each held claims on the Wisconsin River Valley. The Treaty of the Cedars of 1836 between the United States and the Menominee Nation saw lumber interests gain the harvest rights along the Wisconsin River from Portage up to Brokaw. The following year, the Chippewa/Ojibwa people agreed to give land to the United States that encompassed the Wisconsin and Chippewa Valleys, called the Treaty of St. Peters (or among many Americans, the White Pine Treaty). With the lumbering rights secured (at least on paper), American land agents arrived to survey the land in preparation for logging expeditions. By the end of the 1930s, the lumberjacks were starting the lumber trade that would dominate Wisconsin for the next 50 years. Temporary logging sites from that time soon developed into unique and proud communities along the Wisconsin River to harvest the Great Pinery. Towns with names such as Little Bull Falls, Big Bull Falls, and Jenny Falls became the epicenter of this early logging industry. Central Wisconsin’s unique geography and the power of the Wisconsin River combined to create the lore, legends, and myths of the lumberjacks and the Great Pinery.